This document covers five topics that help cardiologists understand what is important when treating patients with diabetes, and which risks these patients face. Download your free copy.
5 Things a cardiologist needs to know about diabetes Several factors make a diabetes patient more vulnerable to severe hypoglycemia events, which are associated with higher CV morbidity and mortality. Prof Schernthaner discusses how hypoglycemia can be prevented.
5 Things a cardiologist needs to know about diabetes Multiple causal pathways contribute to development of T2DM, thus various processes may be targeted to improve glucose regulation. Prof. Bailey briefly summarises the available therapeutic options.
5 Things a cardiologist needs to know about diabetes Prof Leiter gives an update of the trials on new antihyperglycemic drugs (DPP-4 inhibitors, GLP-1 receptor agonists and SGLT2 inhibitors) that have been completed or are ongoing since the FDA mandated demonstration of CV safety.
5 Things a cardiologist needs to know about diabetes Prof Naveed Sattar discusses the value of HbA1c to diagnose T2DM, and how HbA1c levels are related to the risk of developing micro and macrovascular disease and the consequences thereof for choosing a HbA1c therapeutic target.
5 Things a cardiologist needs to know about diabetes Prof. Ray focuses on micro- and macrovascular disease in type 2 diabetes, their implications, their interrelationship and how these risks can be modified by new glucose-lowering agents.
After diagnosis of diabetes, glucose control is not the only factor that needs consideration, as CV risk and co-morbidities also require attention. The aim of therapy for T2DM is to improve glycemic control to reduce microvascular risk, and to lower macrovascular risk, mostly by control of lipids and BP. In addition, co-morbidities such as obesity, depression, fatty liver, and microvascular complications like kidney, eye and neuropathic diseases should be managed.
HbA1c is a measure used in diagnosis and management of diabetes. HbA1c is glycated hemoglobin, which refers to hemoglobin bound to glucose. Measurement of HbA1c levels reflects the average glucose level of the last 2-3 months, since red blood cells survive for 8 to 12 weeks before they are renewed
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is increasing: 150-200 million new cases are predicted in the next 10-15 years with the heaviest burden in less developed countries. Insulin resistance starts with weight gain and obesity, and can lead to hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, abnormal lipid levels, and altered clotting that can finally lead to T2DM
Since the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) mandated demonstration of CV safety for new antihyperglycemic drugs, various trials evaluating DPP-4 inhibitors, GLP-1RAs and SGLT2 inhibitors on CV outcomes have been completed or are ongoing. Results will be briefly discussed and are summarized in table 1.