Physicians' Academy for Cardiovascular Education

Certain sports activities associated with reductions in all-cause and CVD mortality

Oja P, et al, Br J Sports Med, 2016

Associations of specific types of sports and exercise with all-cause and cardiovascular-disease mortality: a cohort study of 80 306 British adults


Oja P, Kelly P, Pedisic Z, et al.
Br J Sports Med 2016; published online ahead of print
 

Background

There is evidence supporting that physical activity (PA) is associated with reduced all-cause mortality [1,2]. However, the associations with specific sport disciplines are still unclear [3,4].
 
In this study, the independent associations between popular types of sport and exercise and all-cause and CV-mortality were evaluated in a pooled analysis of 10 general population cohorts of 80,306 adults in England and Scotland with a mean age of 52. Moreover, the graded exposure–response characteristics of these associations were studied. Patients were followed for 9.2 years on average, during which 8790 deaths occurred. The most common sport/exercise activities were swimming, cycling, aerobics, running, racquet sports and football.
 

Main results

Compared with no participation in sports activities, the multivariate analyses of the association between specific sports and risk of all-cause and CVD mortality showed that:
  • Cycling was associated with a significantly reduced risk of all-cause mortality of 15% (HR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.76 - 0.95), but was not associated with a reduced risk for CVD mortality (HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.76 - 1.16).
  • Swimming was associated with a significantly reduced risk of all-cause mortality of 28% (HR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.65 - 0.80) and with a significant reduced risk of CVD mortality of 41% (HR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.46 - 0.75).
  • Running was not associated with a significant reduction in risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.68 - 1.11), neither with a significantly reduced risk of CVD mortality (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.47 - 1.39).
  • Football was not associated with a significantly reduced risk for all-cause mortality (HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.61 - 1.11), neither with a significantly reduced risk of CVD mortality (HR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.49 - 1.64).
  • Racquet sports was associated with a significantly reduced risk of all-cause mortality of 47% (HR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.40 - 0.69) and with a significant reduced risk of CVD mortality of 56% (HR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.24 - 0.83).
  • Aerobics was associated with a significantly reduced risk for all-cause mortality of 27% (HR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.63 - 0.85) and with a significant reduced risk of CVD mortality of 36% (HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.45 - 0.92).
 
The dose response relationships were variable for different sport disciplines.
 

Conclusion

In a pooled analysis of 10 general population cohorts in England and Scotland, significant reductions in all-cause and CVD mortality were observed for swimming, racquet sports and aerobics and in all-cause mortality for cycling. These data support clinicians in their effort to motivate individuals to participate in certain sports activities.
 
Find this article online at Br J Sports Med
 

References

1. Samitz G, Egger M, Zwahlen M. Domains of physical activity and all-cause mortality: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies. Int J Epidemiol 2011;40:1382–400.
2. US Department of Health and Human Services. Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee. Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee Report. Washington, DC: 2008:683.
3. Oja P, Titze S, Kokko S, et al. Health benefits of different sport disciplines for adults: systematic review of observational and intervention studies with meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med 2015;49:434–40.
4. De Bourdeaudhuij I, Van Cauwenberghe E, Spittaels H, et al. School-based interventions promoting both physical activity and healthy eating in Europe: a systematic review within the HOPE project. Obes Rev 2011;12:205–16.