More than 3.7 g sodium per day has a negative effect on cardiac mechanics
Association of Estimated Sodium Intake With Adverse Cardiac Structure and Function
From the HyperGEN StudyLiterature - Selvaraj S, a Luc Djoussé MA, Aguilar FG, et al. - J Am Coll Cardiol 2017;70:715–24
- The median ESI was 3.73 g/day (IQR 3.24-4.25) and the median potassium intake was 1.55 g/day (IQR 1.32-1.78).
- Participants with higher ESI were older, more often white, more frequently had comorbidities, higher blood pressure and higher BMI (P<0.05 for all comparisons).
- After adjustment, ESI was associated with all strain parameters and STe’ in case of linear spline 2 (>3.7 g/day; P<0.05 for all comparisons), but not for spline 1 (≤3.7 g/day; P>0.05 for all comparisons).
- While an association was demonstrated between higher E/STe’ and increased ESI in spline 2 on univariate analysis, the relationship was not significant after multivariable adjustment.
- When analyzing the relationship using multivariable fractional polynomial regression for participants with ESI ≥3.7 g/day, results were similar.
- No independent association between ESI and STe’ was observed until the cut-point was increased (in increments of 0.10 g/day) from 2.9 g/day to 3.7 g/day.
- In sensitivity analysis, excluding participants on diuretics, the association between ESI and circumferential strain for spline 2 remained present.
- On interaction analysis, the associations between ESI and worse circumferential strain were only demonstrated in the presence of low estimated potassium intake.
- Mediation analysis suggested that systolic blood pressure (SBP) explained 14% and 20% of the indirect effects between ESI and longitudinal strain and STe’, respectively, while serum aldosterone explained 19% of the indirect effects between ESI and longitudinal strain.
In contrast to an ESI of <3.7 g/day, an ESI of ≥3.7 g/day was associated with adverse strain and STe’, SBP and serum aldosterone explained a significant proportion of the indirect effects between ESI and strain and STe’. These results support the hypothesis of the adverse CV effects of high sodium intake.
In his editorial article , Marwick discusses the limitations of the study published by Selvaraj et al, including:
- The echocardiographic methodology is characterized as being an ‘archaeological echocardiography’ approach, since echo-images stored on videotapes may show lower values of strain and velocity.
- The link between aldosterone and the effect of sodium intake on myocardial function implies that fibrosis might have been the reason for the myocardial change.
- The subjects with higher salt intake were more likely to have hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus.
The author concludes: ‘The observed effects of salt on myocardial function may be very relevant in some groups. The evidence provided in the paper by Selvaraj et al. supports renewed attention to the potential benefits of controlling salt intake, especially in individuals with a risk of myocardial dysfunction. Because of the pervasive presence of sodium in the Western diet, there is some urgency in clarifying this information. The next logical step might be to investigate the merits of salt reduction, and related contributors such as dietary fiber in patients with LV dysfunction, the precursor to heart failure.’