AHA Scientific Statement on CVD risk factors in diabetic youth
The American Heart Association has issued a scientific statement on management of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in young people with diabetes mellitus. Multiple guidelines on this topic have previously been written by professional organisations. The current scientific statement summarizes and interprets these guidelines and new developments in the field in the past decade and outlines future research and clinical needs to improve cardiovascular health and risk factor management in youth with diabetes mellitus. The document discusses type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus separately and in a table that summarises all guideline recommendations, differences in recommendations between the two types of diabetes are indicated.
Available evidence on racial/ethnic disparities is discussed, as well as what is known on and how to manage or prevent target organ damage. Furthermore, the document elaborates on how to reduce various CVD risk factors, including the A,B, C (control HbA1c (A), blood pressure, and cholesterol) approach, but also associations between diabetes and obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, oxidative stress, kidney function, smoking, diet, exercise, psychosocial stress, depression, sleep are considered, as are nonmodifiable risk factors genetics and family history of CVD.
Furthermore, the statement aims to increase awareness of CVD risk factors and their identification, prevention, and treatment and to improve cardiovascular health in youth with diabetes mellitus. To this end, advancement in research and clinical care is encouraged by indicating gaps in the knowledge and research priorities, including understanding and implementing current CVD guidelines.
Given de increasing incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, also in young people, improving cardiovascular health in youth with diabetes mellitus has important public health implications.