No increased risk of hospitalisation for HF with incretin-based drugs in routine practice
A Multicenter Observational Study of Incretin-based Drugs and Heart Failure
Filion KB, Azoulay L, Platt RW, et al. CNODES Investigators.
N Engl J Med. 2016 Mar 24;374(12):1145-54. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1506115.
BackgroundConcerns have been raised about the safety of incretin-based drugs, among which dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogues, as they may give an increased risk of heart failure (HF) . In the SAVOR-TIMI 53 trial, patients randomised to the DPP-4 inhibitor saxagliptin indeed showed a 27% higher risk of hospitalisation for HF (HFH) as compared to those on placebo [2,3]. The EXAMINE  and TECOS  on the other hand, did not show an increase in the overall risk of HFH in patients randomly assigned to alogliptin and sitagliptin, respectively.
This analysis examined data from multiple cohorts of patients, to determine whether data the use of incretin-based drugs, in comparison with oral antidiabetic-drug combinations, is associated with an increased risk of HF in routine clinical practice. The study is part of the Canadian Network for Observational Drug Effect Studies (CNODES) .
Data of type 2 diabetes patients with a first-ever prescription for a noninsulin antidiabetic drug of six sites in Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom were included. A nested case-control analysis was performed, with cases defined as those hospitalised for HF (both fatal and non-fatal events). Up to 20 controls were randomly selected for each case patient and matched based on sex, age, date of study-cohort entry, duration of treated diabetes, and duration of follow-up. The cohorts included 1499650 patients, of whom 29741 were hospitalised for HF (3242291 person-years of follow-up, crude incidence rate: 9.2 events per 1000 persons per year).
- Among 1419850 patients without a history of HF, 23205 patients were hospitalised for HF (crude incidence rate: 7.5 events per 1000 persons per year). In those with a history of HF (79800 patients), 6535 HFH occurred (crude incidence rate: 43.5 events per 1000 persons per year).
- Among those without a history of HF, treatment with incretin-based drugs was not associated with an increased risk of HFH, as compared with treatment with oral antidiabetic-drug combinations (HR: 0.82, 95%CI: 0.67-1.00).
Similar results were seen when drug classes were analysed separately (DPP-4 inhibitors: HR: 0.84, 95%CI: 0.69-1.02; GLP-1 analogues: HR: 0.95, 95%CI: 0.83-1.10).
- No evidence of a duration-response relationship was seen, nor of effect-modification of a history of myocardial infarction or duration of treated diabetes.
- Similarly, in those with a history of HF, no increased risk of HFH was seen associated with incretin-based drugs (HR: 0.86, 95%CI: 0.62-1.19).
This observation did not depend on drug class (DPP4-inhibitors: HR: 0.87, 95%CI: 0.63-1.21); GLP-1 analogues: HR: 0.75, 95%CI: 0.22-2.51), nor on history of MI or duration of treated diabetes.
ConclusionIn a large, retrospective analysis of patients with diabetes type 2 seen in routine clinical practice, no evidence was observed for an increased risk of hospitalisation for HF with use of incretin-based drugs, as compared with oral antidiabetic drugs. Results were consistent among analyses specified for patients with or without a history of HF and for patients taking DPP-4 inhibitors or GLP-1 analogues.
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