Efficacy NOAC similar in AF patients with or without moderate renal dysfunction
Impact of Renal Function on Outcomes With Edoxaban in the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 Trial
Bohula EA, Giugliano RP, Ruff CT, et al.
BackgroundEdoxaban, an oral factor Xa inhibitor, is non-inferior to warfarin for the prevention of thromboembolic events in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), and is associated with significantly lower major bleeding rates, based on the results of the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 trial .
The higher-dose edoxaban regimen (HDER), 60 mg once daily, is approved for AF patients, but there is a label restriction for patients with creatinine clearance (CrCl) > 95 mL/min, because of the open question of decreased relative efficacy for the prevention of ischemic stroke compared with warfarin [2,3]. Due to the significant renal clearance of edoxaban, AF patients with renal dysfunction were either excluded from the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 study if they had CrCl < 30 mL/min, or received a lower edoxaban dose (30 mg once daily), if they had CrCl 30-50 mL/min and low body weight or concomitant use of a potent phosphorylated glycoprotein inhibitor .
In this pre-specified analysis of the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 study, the efficacy, safety, and net clinical outcomes with HDER compared with warfarin was evaluated based on renal function.
Main resultsThe absolute rates of the primary efficacy end point of stroke/systemic embolism (S/SE) were:
- in patients with moderate renal dysfunction (CrCl 30–50 mL/min): 2.3%/year for HDER and 2.7%/year for warfarin
- in patients with mild or no renal dysfunction (CrCl >50 mL/min): 1.4%/year for HDER and 1.6%/year for warfarin
- for CrCl of 30–50 mL/min: HR: 0.87; 95%CI: 0.65–1.18
- for CrCl >50 mL/min: HR: 0.87; 95%CI: 0.72–1.04
- for CrCl of 30–50 mL/min: HR: 0.76; 95%CI: 0.58–0.98
- for CrCl >50 mL/min: HR: 0.82; 95%CI: 0.71–0.95
- for CrCl of 30–50 mL/min: 11.4%/year for HDER and 13.4%/year for warfarin
- for CrCl >50 mL/min: 6.3%/year for HDER and 7.0%/year for warfarin
- for CrCl of 30–50 mL/min: HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.75–0.98
- for CrCl >50 mL/min: HR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.83–0.99
- for CrCl of 30–50 mL/min: HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.65–1.18
- for CrCl >50–95 mL/min: HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.64–0.96
- for CrCl >95 mL/min: HR: 1.36; 95% CI: 0.88–2.10
- for CrCl 30–50 mL/min; HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.75–0.98
- for CrCl >50–95 mL/min: HR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.82–1.00
- for CrCl >95 mL/min: HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.77–1.13
ConclusionIn the ENGAGE – AF TIMI 48 trial, 60 mg edoxaban daily showed comparable efficacy and better safety compared with warfarin, both in AF patients with, or without moderate renal dysfunction. However, exploratory analyses showed a lower relative efficacy for the prevention of stroke or systemic embolism in patients with CrCl >95 mL/min, therefore the optimal dosing of edoxaban in these patients needs further investigation.
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