Physicians' Academy for Cardiovascular Education

Obesity is associated with increased CV risk even without metabolic abnormalities

Metabolically Healthy Obese and Incident Cardiovascular Disease Events Among 3.5 Million Men and Women

Literature - Caleyachetty R, Thomas GN, PHD, Toulis KA, et al - J Am Coll Cardiol 2017;70:1429–37

Main results

Compared with normal weight individuals with 0 MA and after adjustment for potential confounders:

The risk of CHD, CVD, PVD and HF in the normal weight, overweight, and obese groups increased with increased number of metabolic abnormalities.

Subgroup analyses showed that the CVD risk in overweight and obese individuals without MA, as well as the HF risk in overweight individuals without MA differed significantly by gender: females had stronger positive associations with CVD and HF compared with males.

Moreover, overweight and obese individuals without metabolic abnormalities aged <65 years had significantly stronger positive associations with CHD, CVD, HF, and PVD compared with individuals ≥ 65 years of age.


Individuals who are obese with no metabolic abnormalities are at higher risk of CHD, CVD, and HF, compared with normal weight metabolically healthy persons. On the other hand, normal weight individuals may be at high CV risk, if they have metabolic abnormalities.

Editorial comment

In their editorial article, Bea and Sweitzer discuss the limitations of the analysis published by Caleyachtty et al, which include the following:

  • The data were extracted exclusively from 1 UK network, which does not give us information about various other populations.
  • The BMI is not the ideal measure for fat.
  • The time variance of BMI and metabolic parameters was not assessed.
  • The influence of diet and physical activity was not evaluated.

Despite the limitations, the authors conclude as follows: ‘In conclusion, obesity increases cardiovascular risk regardless of metabolic status. However, metabolic dysfunction itself also carries risk independent of weight because of the similar results across BMI categories of CVD risk in the Caleyachetty et al. study, and others, when metabolic dysfunction is present. This study supports following the U.S. guidelines for screening of CVD in persons age older than 18 years, even perhaps extending screening, and acting upon findings that suggest metabolic risk to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.’


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Find this article online at J Am Coll Cardiol

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