Yogurt consumption before an unhealthy meal reduces postprandial inflammation
Premeal Low-Fat Yogurt Consumption Reduces Postprandial Inflammation and Markers of Endotoxin Exposure in Healthy Premenopausal Women in a Randomized Controlled Trial
Introduction and methods
Hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia occurring after a meal, may cause postprandial inflammation, which is associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis . In obese individuals, postprandial inflammation leads to increased chronic inflammation, and low grade endotoxin exposure occurs, a situation called metabolic endotoxemia . A recent meta-analysis showed a nonlinear inverse association between yogurt intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes, which may be due to an increase of postprandial hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia by dairy proteins and calcium [3,4].
The effect of pre-meal low-fat yogurt consumption was assessed on postprandial biomarkers of metabolic endotoxemia and inflammation compared with soy pudding. For this purpose, healthy premenopausal women were enrolled, aged 21–55 years, nonobese (body mass index 18.5-27 kg/m2) or obese (30-40 kg/m2)
Participants were randomly assigned to consume 339 g of low-fat yogurt (YN, yogurt nonobese; YO, yogurt obese) or 324 g of soy pudding (CN, control nonobese; CO, control obese) for 9 weeks (n=30 per group). At week 0 and at week 9, participants consumed either 226 g of low-fat yogurt or 216 g of soy pudding immediately before a high-fat, high-carbohydrate meal (challenge meal). After the meal, the following parameters were measured hourly for 4 hours: glucose, triglycerides (TG), and insulin levels, as well as plasma soluble CD14 (sCD14), lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), sCD14/LBP, and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Participants and study personnel were not blinded to the intervention.
- At week 0, net incremental (i) area under the curve (UAC) of sCD14 was 72% higher in the yogurt group compared to the control group for obese individuals (P<0.05) and LBP/sCD14 net iAUC was higher in the control groups compared to the yogurt groups (P treatment=0.031).
- At week 0, IL-6 net iAUC was reduced by 70% and 43% in the yogurt groups, YO and YN, respectively (P treatment=0.033) and TG net iAUC was unchanged by the intervention.
- Net iAUC for glucose was different between groups at week 0 (P interaction=0.0013); yogurt decreased postprandial hyperglycemia in obese individuals and reduced postprandial hypoglycemia in nonobese P<0.05).
- After 9 weeks of intervention, change in sCD14, LBP, IL-6, TG, glucose and insulin UACs was not different between groups.
- Change in LBP/sCD14 AUC at week 9 was less for the yogurt group compared to the control group (P for treatment=0.0093) and change in LBP/sCD14 AUC was greater in nonobese participant than obese (P for obesity=0.02).
The authors conclude that pre-meal yogurt consumption improved acute postprandial dysfunction after a high-fat, high-calorie meal in obese and non-obese women A moderate long-term effect of yogurt consumption on metabolic endotoxemia was observed, but the duration of 9 weeks was insufficient to further reduce postprandial inflammation.