HF and CKD most frequent first CV- and renal disease manifestations in T2DM
Heart failure and chronic kidney disease manifestation and mortality risk associations in type 2 diabetes: a large multinational cohort study
Introduction and methods
HF and CKD, also known as cardiorenal disease, have a high prevalence and CV and mortality risk among patients with T2DM [1-11]. The seriousness of both conditions is further accentuated because HF can lead to kidney failure and vice versa, resulting in cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) [12, 13]. It has been demonstrated that risks of HF and CKD remain high in patients with T2D despite the use of established treatment strategies for CVD [14-16]. In addition, it is not well understood how HF and CKD temporally develop in patients with T2DM.
The present multinational cohort study evaluated the temporal development of HF and CKD among T2D-patients (n=772,336) in England, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden, who were initially free of cardiovascular- and renal disease (CVRD). CVRD-free T2DM patients were defined as those patients without any recorded history of CV or renal disease, including stroke, MI, (unstable) angina pectoris, AF, HF, coronary revascularization, PAD, peripheral artery revascularization or CKD. They were examined from index to the first recorded CVRD event. First CVRD event was defined by first recorded out- or in-hospital diagnosis of HF, CKD, cardiorenal disease (HF or CKD), stroke, MI or PAD. In addition, for comparison with CVRD-free patients, patients with a single CVRD manifestation were also identified at index, including manifestations of stroke, MI, PAD, HF or CKD, and its separate components HF, CKD and CRS. Outcomes to estimate risk associations included all-cause death, CVD death, and mentioned CVRD outcomes. Mean follow-up was 4.5 years.
- Of 772,336 CVRD-free T2DM patients, 18% developed a first CVRD manifestation during follow-up. The proportion of patients who experienced cardiorenal disease increased early during follow-up, compared to the proportion of patients who experienced stroke, MI or PAD. Cardiorenal disease (HF or CKD) was the most frequent first CVRD manifestation across countries (cardiorenal disease 60%, consisting of HF 24% and CKD 36%; stroke 16%, MI 14% and PAD 10%).
- Compared to CVRD-free T2DM patients, patients with a single manifestation of cardiorenal disease had increased all-cause mortality risk (HR 2.02, 95%CI: 1.75-2.33) and increased CVD mortality risk (HR 2.05, 95%CI: 1.82-2.32).
- Similarly, single manifestations of separate components of cardiorenal disease, HF, CKD and CRS, were also associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality (HF: HR 2.30, 95%CI: 2.14-2.47; CKD: HR 1.88, 95%CI: 1.59-2.22; CRS: HR 3.14, 95%CI: 2.90-3.40) and CVD mortality (HF: HR 2.76, 95%CI: 2.12-3.59; CKD: HR 1.79, 95%CI: 1.59-2.02; CRS: HR 3.91, 95%CI: 3.02-5.07), compared to the CVRD-free group.
- Single manifestations of cardiorenal disease and its separate components were also associated with increased risk of CVD events, including MI (cardiorenal disease: HR 1.55, 95%CI 1.45-1.65; HF: HR 1.45, 95%CI: 1.21-1.75; CKD: HR 1.59, 95%CI: 1.52-1.67; CRS: HR 2.16, 95%CI: 1.51-3.09), stroke (cardiorenal disease: HR 1.35, 95%CI 1.28-1.43, HF: HR 1.43, 95%CI: 1.29-1.59; CKD: HR 1.33, 95%CI: 1.22-1.45; CRS: HR 1.73, 95%CI: 1.45-2.06) and PAD (cardiorenal disease: HR 1.96, 95%CI 1.69-2.27, HF: HR 1.66, 95%CI: 1.40-1.97; CKD: HR 2.14, 95%CI: 1.74-2.62; CRS: HR 3.16, 95%CI: 2.31-4.34), compared to the CVRD free group.
- Compared to CVRD-free T2DM patients, single manifestation of HF was associated with increased risk of incident CKD (HR 2.30, 95%CI: 2.00-2.65) and single manifestation of CKD was associated with increased risk of HF (HR 1.99, 95% CI: 1.75-2.26).
Among T2DM patients initially free from CVRD, cardiorenal disease (HF or CKD) was the most frequent first CVRD manifestation. Patients with single presence of cardiorenal disease had an increased all-cause and CVD mortality risk, as well as an increased risk of MI, stroke and PAD, compared to patients with no history of CVRD.